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Comparison of HSV, Adenovirus, AAV, Retrovirus and Lentivirus for Gene Delivery

HSV Adenovirus AAV Retrovirus Lentivirus
Genomic Integration Episomal,100% Episomal,100% Episomal >90%, Integrated Integrated
Cloning Capacity 150 kb for amplicon; 40 kb for replication defective HSV 8 kb for replication defective AdV; 30 kb for HC/gutless 3.5–4.0 kb 7–8 kb 7–8 kb
Tropism Broad host and cell type range, including dividing cells; preference for neurons Strong for most tissues Broad Dividing cells only Broad, including neurons
Duration of Expression In Vivo Days (amplicon) to months (replication-defective) First generation: 10 days to months; gutted: long Long (2.5–6.0 months) Days to months Long (>12 months)
Advantages Amplicon vectors easily amenable to genetic manipulation; high and broad transduction efficiency; helper virus-free stocks possible; concentrates to high titers High and broad transduction efficiency; growth to high titers (1011) Not pathogenic or immunogenic; helper virus-free stocks possible; growth to high titers (>1012) Persistent gene transfer; useful for cell marking/lineage analysis Stable, long-term expression; transduction of nondividing cells
Disadvantages Occasional cytotoxicity; strong immune response possible Severe inflammation and immune response; genetic manipulation unwieldy Low cloning capacity Insertional mutagenesis Insertional mutagenesis; questionable safety; possible germ-line alterations

HSV, herpes simplex virus; HC, high-capacity; AAV, adenoassociated virus; AdV, adenovirus.

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